Chapter-5 Production Function

Chapter-5 Production Function

12th English Medium
CONCEPT OF PRODUCTION FUNCTION Production function is an expression of the technological relationship between physical inputs and physical output of a commodity.   PERIOD IN PRODUCTION   VERY SHORT PERIOD: In this period producer does not have sufficient time to make fresh adjustment at the factor of production. SHORT PERIOD: Short run refers to a period in which output can be changed by changing only variable factors. LONG PERIOD: Long run refers to period in which output can be changed by changing all factors of production. Variable factors and Fixed factors Variable factors Variable factors refers to those factors, which can be changed in the short run, for example raw material, casual labour, power fuel etc. Variable factors very directly with the level of output . As output increase, requirement…
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Chapter -3 उपभोक्ता संतुलन – उपयोगिता विश्लेष्ण

12th Hindi Medium
  उपयोगिता किसी वस्तु में संतुष्ट करने की शक्ति उपयोगिता कहलाती है I   कुल उपयोगिता एक वस्तु की सभी इकइयो का उपभोग करने से जो उपयोगिता प्याप्त होती है I उसके जोड़ को कुल उपयोगिता कहते है I   सीमांत उपयोगिता किसी वस्तु की अतिरिक्त इकाई का उपभोग करने से प्राप्त उपयोगिता के जोड़ को सीमांत उपयोगिता कहते है I   MU = TUn – TUn-1     कुल उपयोगिता तथा सीमांत उपयोगिता में सम्बंध     Q TU MU 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 8 14 18 20 20 18 - 8 6 4 2 0 -2   जब सीमांत उपयोगिता धनात्मक है तो कुल उपयोगिता बढती जाती है I   जब कुल उपयोगिता अधिकतम है तब सीमांत उपयोगिता शून्य होती है I   जब…
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Chapter-2 अर्थव्यवस्था की केन्द्रीय समस्याए

12th Hindi Medium
एक अर्थव्यवस्था की मुख्य रूप से तीन समस्याए है :- (i) क्या उत्पादन किया जाए (ii) कैसे उत्पादन किया जाए (iii) किसके लिए उत्पादन किया जाए     क्या उत्पादन किया जाए यह अर्थव्यवस्था की पहली केन्द्रीय समस्या है जो कि वस्तुओ के उत्पादन से सम्बन्धित है I यह मुख्यतः दो प्रकार की होती है :- उपभोक्ता वस्तु :- पूंजीगत वस्तुए :-   कैसे उत्पादन किया जाए कैसे उत्पादन किया जाए अर्थव्यवस्था की दूसरी केन्द्रीय समस्या है I जो कि मुख्यतः दो प्रकार की तकनीक होती है :- श्रम प्रधान तकनीक : पुंजी प्रधान तकनीक :   किसके लिए उत्पादन करें यह अर्थव्यवस्था की तीसरी केन्द्रीय समस्या है यह समस्या उत्पादन के वितरण से सम्बन्धित है I जिसको गरीब या आमिर में वितरित करना होता है I    आमिर वर्ग…
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Chapter-1 अर्थशास्त्र एवं अर्थव्यवस्था

12th Hindi Medium
अर्थशास्त्र अर्थशास्त्र दुर्लभ संसाधनो के इष्टतम प्रयोग का इस प्रकार अध्धयन करता है, जिससे कि व्यष्टि स्तर पर व्यक्तिगत लाभ अधिकतम हो सके तथा समष्टि स्तर पर आर्थिक लाभ अधिकतम हो सके I उत्पादन के साधन वे साधन जो उत्पादन में सहयोग करते है एवं उत्पादन क्रिया को सम्पूर्ण करते है उत्पादन के साधन कहलाते है I उदाहरण : भूमि, श्रम, पुंजी, उद्दम उत्पादन के साधनों की विशेषताए :- (i) संसाधन सिमित है I (ii) संसाधनो के वैकल्पिक प्रयोग है I जैसे :- दूध से पनीर, खोया, चाय, दही इत्यादि में प्रयोग I आर्थिक समस्या क्या है ? इसके उत्पन्न होने के कारण बताइए :- आर्थिक समस्या मूलतः चयन की समस्या है I इसके उत्पन्न होने के निम्नलिखित कारण है :- (i) संसाधन सीमित है :- (ii) असीमित इच्छाए :…
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Chapter- 4 Demand

12th English Medium
  DEMAND:   Demand is the quantity of a commodity that a consumer is willing and able to buy, at each possible price during a given  period of time.”       DEMAND SCHEDULE:   A demand schedule is a tabular is a statement showing different quantities of a commodity demanded at different prices during a given period of time.”     DEMAND SCHEDULE         Price  Quantity 50 100 40 200 30 300 20 400 10 500   DEMAND CURVE: A demand curve is graphical representation showing different quantities of a commodity demanded at different prices during a given period of time.           MARKET DEMAND:  Market demand is the total quantity for a commodity which all the individual buyers in the market are…
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Valuation of Goodwill[Chapter-2],Class 12 Accounts

Valuation of Goodwill[Chapter-2],Class 12 Accounts

12th Accounts, Uncategorized
Define Goodwill [1] List any four factors affecting goodwill. [1] How does the factor ‘Quality of Products’ affect the goodwill of a firm? [1] How does the factor ‘Location’ affect the goodwill of a firm? [1] How does the factor ‘Efficiency of Management’ affect the goodwill of a firm? [1] How does the market situation affect the value of goodwill of a firm? [1] How does the nature of business affect the value of goodwill of a firm? [1] Describe the need for valuation of goodwill. [3] The profit for the last five years of a firm were as follows: Year 2010 Rs.4,00,000; Year 2011 Rs.3,98,000; Year 2012 Rs.4,50,000; Year 2013 Rs.4,45,000 and Year 2017 Rs.5,00,000. Calculate goodwill of the firm on the basis of 4 years purchase of 5…
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Fundamental of Partnership[Chapter-1],Class 12 Accounts

Fundamental of Partnership[Chapter-1],Class 12 Accounts

12th Accounts
Why Profit and Loss Appropriation Account is prepared? [1] State the provisions of ‘Indian Partnership Act, 1932’ in the absence of partnership deed regarding (i) Interest on Partner’s Drawings and (ii) Interest on Advances other than capital. [1] X and Y are partners in a firm without a partnership deed. X is active partner and claims a salary of Rs.36,000 per month. State with reason whether the claim is valid or not. [1] Amit has provided a capital of Rs.1,00,000 where as Vivek had provided Rs.20,000 only as capital. Vivek  however has provided Rs.40,000 as loan to the firm. There is no partnership agreement. Vivek  claims interest of Rs.2,400. Whereas other partners do not want to give any interest. State giving reason who is correct in this case. [1] X…
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Chapter-10: Indian Economy at the time of Independence

11th English Medium
the features of Indian economy as follows: (i) Low per capita income India is known in the world as a country with low per capita income. Per capita income is defined as the ratio of national income over population. It gives the idea about the average earning of an Indian citizen in a year, even though this may not reflect the actual earning of each individual. India's per capita income for the year 2012-2013 is estimated at ` 39,168. This comes to about ` 3,264 per month. If we compare India's per capita income with other countries of the world then it can be seen that India is well behind many of them. For example, the per capita income of USA is 15 times more that of India while China's…
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