11th Economics ,Chapter 4: PRESENTATION OF DATA


Tabulation –A table is a systematic arrangement of related statistical data in columns and rows with some predetermined aim or purpose.


Objectives of Tabulation:


  1. Helps in understanding and interpreting the data easily.
  2. It helps in comparing data.
  3. It saves space and time.
  4. Tabulated data can be easily presented in the form of diagrams and graphs.


Main parts of a table.


  1. Table Numbers: If more than one table has been used or presented at one place, it is always better to give them numbers. It makes further reference to them easy.


  1. Title: Title is to the table what heading is to an essay. It appears at the top of a table and gives idea about what is contained in the main body of the table. The title should be brief and to the point. It is better if the title is presented in bold letters or capital letters


  1. Head note (or prefatory note): It is written below the title. It clarifies the contents of the table and unit of measurements like “in rupees thousand” or “in Lakh tons” or “in thousand bales of cotton” etc. It must be written in brackets on right side (top) of the table immediately below the title.


  1. Stub: The stub consists of stub head and stub entries. Whereas stub describes the stub entries down below it, each stub entry labels a given data placed in its row. Both stub head and stub entries appear on the left hand column of the table. Further, stub entries describe the column heads.


  1. Main Body or Field: It is the most important part of the table and contains the numerical information about which a hint is given in title. For example, if the title is “Exports and Imports of Country A during 1995-96, it clearly shows that the body of the table contains statistical/numerical information on value of exports and imports of country A with different countries.


  1. Footnote: It is a qualifying statement placed at the bottom of a table. Its purpose is to explain omission or limitations of the data presented in main body of the table. For example, if the data for a year is not available then it is mentioned at the bottom of the table.


  1. Source of Data: Last but not the least, it is essential to mention the source of data presented in the table. It helps the reader to check the original source of data himself and get more of it on the subject. This also makes the data presented in the table more reliable. It should mention information like title, edition, page number and source of publication etc.


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